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Title: 'Mountain of God' Volcano Preparing to Erupt
Source: National Geographic
URL Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/ ... uption-ancient-humans-science/
Published: Jul 13, 2017
Author: Michael Greshko
Post Date: 2017-07-15 18:23:14 by cranky
Keywords: None
Views: 207
Comments: 14

The East African peak looms over a modern city as well as three major sites featuring signs of early humans.

An aerial view shows erosion on Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania.

An active volcano in northeastern Tanzania known to the Maasai as the “Mountain of God” has been quietly rumbling—and it is showing signs that an eruption is imminent.

Known as Ol Doinyo Lengai, the 7,650-foot-tall peak is the only known active volcano that belches out lava rich with a type of rock called carbonatite. This thin, silvery lava can flow faster than a person can run. (Read more about the volcano from our January 2003 issue.)

The volcano is some 70 miles from the city of Arusha and is known for its proximity to some of the world’s most important paleoanthropological sites. Ol Doinyo Lengai is less than 70 miles from the famed Olduvai Gorge, a collection of 3.6-million-year-old hominin footprints at a site called Laetoli, and a “dance hall” of ancient Homo sapiens footprints at a site called Engare Sero.

Typically, the volcano’s activity is confined to its summit. But occasionally, the Mountain of God can roar to life in more dramatic fashion: On September 4, 2007, the volcano belched out a plume of ash that extended at least 11 miles downwind. Lava running down the north and west flanks ignited burn scars that were visible from space.

D. Sarah Stamps, a geophysicist at Virginia Tech, has been partnering with local academics to try and predict the next major eruption. In June 2016, she and her colleagues installed five positioning sensors around Ol Doinyo Lengai in the hopes of tracking how magma’s underground churn is deforming the volcano’s surface.

In concert with Tanzania’s Ardhi University and South Korea’s KIGAM, Stamps has set up a monitoring system that collects data on the volcano’s activity in real time.

On January 17, 2017, Stamps saw a shudder in the data streaming from one monitoring station—a sign that, far from merely rumbling, parts of the volcano were lifting upward.

“Several subsequent signals were also seen in real-time with additional on-the-ground observations by our local technician,” Stamps says. “These signals prompted rapid responses by our team to install three new real-time stations”—a project funded by the National Geographic Society. (Since 2012, the National Geographic Society has committed more than $400,000 to researching volcanoes. Find out more.)

Based on the data they are seeing, Stamps and her colleagues warn that an eruption seems to be on the horizon.

“Imminent in our case means in one second, in a few weeks, a couple of months, or a year or more,” she says in an email.

“There are increased ash emissions, earthquakes, uplift at small volcanic cones, and an ever widening crack at the top of the volcano on the west side,” she adds. “These are all signs of volcanic deformation that will likely lead to an eruption sooner rather than later.”

Stamps notes that an eruption alone likely would not affect many of the nearby paleoanthropological sites, an opinion shared by Cynthia Liutkus-Pierce, an Appalachian State University geologist and National Geographic grantee who recently led an analysis of the Engare Sero footprints.

In an email sent from a site six miles from the volcano, Liutkus-Pierce reported that from her perspective, the volcano seemed calm, and the local Maasai did not appear overtly concerned about an eruption.

However, if a large eruption and a heavy rainy season were to coincide, the resulting debris flows could potentially harm Engare Sero and nearby sites, Liutkus-Pierce says.

“Historically, Lengai is capable of large debris flows and debris avalanches that reach the shore of Lake Natron, and these could potentially pose a significant threat to the site and to all of the camps that are here along the lake edge,” she says.

“I think that would be my biggest concern for this area—the potential for a debris flow or debris avalanche.”

As it happens, the Engare Sero footprints exist only because a similar scenario occurred between 5,000 and 19,000 years ago.

At that time, an influx of volcanic mud—washed off of Ol Doinyo Lengai’s flanks by rainfall—created vast mudflats on the shoreline of Lake Natron that ancient humans trod across within hours to days of the event. A second surge of material then filled in the dried footprints, preserving them.

Liutkus-Pierce notes that even in a worst-case scenario, Engare Sero’s “dance hall” is staying alive. Her research team has photographed the footprints in high resolution and could re-create them—and even print them out—in 3D as needed.

“In that way,” she says, “we have essentially preserved the site in case of a natural disaster.”

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#1. To: cranky (#0) (Edited)

“These signals prompted rapid responses by our team to install three new real-time stations”—a project funded by the National Geographic Society. Imminent in our case means in one second, in a few weeks, a couple of months, or a year or more,”

There's the accuracy we're paying for. Sounds like my local weatherman. "Could rain tomorrow. Or not".

misterwhite  posted on  2017-07-15   19:34:24 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#2. To: cranky (#0) (Edited)

Engare Sero’s “dance hall” is staying alive. Her research team has photographed the footprints in high resolution and could re-create them—and even print them out—in 3D as needed.

They need a few million dollar grant to preserve Wahhabi Donald's "dance hall" steps in Saudi Arabia! Lest the voters forget that the Trump administration are HUGE supporters of Radical Islamic Terrorism.

The D&R terrorists hate us because we're free, to vote second party

"We (government) need to do a lot less, a lot sooner" ~Ron Paul

hondo68  posted on  2017-07-15   20:54:18 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#3. To: cranky (#0)

Fascinating! If you look closely at that mountain by google you can see some interesting images of Satan's fall on there. It's in plain sight.

goldilucky  posted on  2017-07-15   22:26:16 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#4. To: All (#3)

That is right here. And next to him is the Angel Raphael casting him in there. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Lake+Baringo/@1.177799,36.2775289,6298m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x1786cf9b80b81d2b:0xb6601e651892f2a0!8m2!3d0.6320551!4d36.0567202

goldilucky  posted on  2017-07-15   23:34:54 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#5. To: hondo68 (#2) (Edited)

I was surprised that the SS allowed so many Saudi swords near Trump. I noticed he had almost no protection near him when wandering through the vast halls of the Saudi palace.

Tooconservative  posted on  2017-07-16   0:48:03 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#6. To: goldilucky (#4)

That is right here. And next to him is the Angel Raphael casting him in there.

I looked and I did not see the Angel Raphael. And Raphael is a very close friend of mine. I could spot him anywhere in Africa, even from space.

Tooconservative  posted on  2017-07-16   0:52:33 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#7. To: Tooconservative (#6) (Edited)

Look closer at here cause the angel is to the right of the black devil that's leering at Raphael. You can tell who Raphael is because he is the one with the wings on his back. Check out Raphael's sharp nose and piercing eyes back at the devil.


Some info on the biblical location and Angel Raphael of where this image was located and its biblical name. The location was known in ancient biblical accounts as Dudael, Ethiopia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael_(archangel)

I would strongly suggest you research into some ancient Ethiopian maps dating back prior to 1600's to find that location of Dudael. It not only did exist but also the true biblical location of the Euphrates river was in West Africa in the township of Benin which was along the West Ethiopian coastline for gold which was where the true Hebrew Israelites (which were black) were sold and their inheritance and identity stolen from them by the British the French and the Romans who conquered the slave coast region.

goldilucky  posted on  2017-07-16   14:02:00 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#8. To: goldilucky (#7)

Only Gabriel and Michael are mentioned in canonical Jewish and Christian scripture.

The other archangels' names were almost certainly brought back to Israel following the Babylonian captivity.

Look closer at here cause the angel is to the right of the black devil that's leering at Raphael.

You seem to be referring to the account in the Book of Enoch, where Raphael is alleged (by some) to have bound a fallen angel, Azazel, in Dudadel. Other scholars say that Azazel is just a metaphor, not a fallen angel.

Tooconservative  posted on  2017-07-16   14:19:46 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#9. To: Tooconservative (#8) (Edited)

And I should make you aware there are two biblical Enoch's https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enoch_(son_of_Cain)

The first Enoch was the son of Cain (from our first earthly family, Adam and Eve). After Cain was banished from Eden, he went Eastward and founded a city called "Nok" and named his son Enoch after it. Enoch or "Nok" is (located in Nigeria area) Africa. Africa was formerly known as Ethiopia before it was conquered and changed by the Roman empire.

The second Enoch was related to Noah. Noah was born in Borno, Ethiopia.

Also to point out this about Azazel : https://encyclopediasatanica.wordpress.com/2013/08/12/references-to-demons-in-the-apocryphal-texts/

goldilucky  posted on  2017-07-16   14:56:55 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#10. To: goldilucky, redleghunter (#9)

And I should make you aware there are two biblical Enoch's https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enoch_(son_of_Cain)

Scripture tells us in Jude of "Enoch, the seventh from Adam." He was the seventh son born of Seth's family line and was the great-great-great-great-grandson of Adam and was also the great-grandfather of Noah. The other Enoch was the son of Cain and a grandson to Adam. And no churches other than the Ethiopian consider the Book of Enoch to be canonical (because they think everything is canonical). The remainder consider it apocryphal or spurious, despite that little quote at the beginning of Jude where the fallen angels are condemned in verse 6, sodomites are condemned in verses 7 & 8, and the archangel Michael is quoted debating the devil in verse 9 and Enoch's prophecy is quoted in verse 1:14.

14 And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,

15 To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.

The second Enoch was related to Noah. Noah was born in Borno, Ethiopia.

The later Enoch (seventh from Adam) was the great-grandfather of Noah.

I always thought that Jude was as close as the N.T. gets to including an apocryphal book, especially verse 14. Even Revelation poses fewer problems and we know the opposition it faced before being included in the N.T. But to include Enoch itself would have gone much much further than the African church (very powerful at the time) or the emerging Latin church or the Greek Eastern church was willing to go. So they allowed Jude into the canon and no more.

redleghunter can tell you that I am pretty ambivalent about the Book of Enoch and of Jude.

Tooconservative  posted on  2017-07-16   16:15:58 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#11. To: Tooconservative (#10)


- Description of 1644-blaeu8-map of Ethiopia showing Azzel half inch below 60 degree Equator


- Description of 1561 map of So. Africa-showing Raphael River- Just above Mozambique sits Dud which is short form for (Dudael)

goldilucky  posted on  2017-07-16   16:32:41 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#12. To: Tooconservative (#10)

redleghunter can tell you that I am pretty ambivalent about the Book of Enoch and of Jude.

I think one of the main reasons Enoch is excluded from most canons is due to the spurious nature of its manuscript history. Will check on that, but compared to many of the OT books and the fact Enoch was not accepted as part of the Hebrew TaNaKh, gives us a good picture of why the early church did not consider it.

From Norm Geisler:

6. Canonicity

I. Introduction

How do we know that the 66 books in our Bible are the only inspired books? Who decided which books were truly inspired by God? The Roman Catholic Bible includes books that are not found in other Bibles (called the Apocrypha). How do we know that we as Protestants have the right books? These questions are addressed by a study of canonicity.

“Canon” is a word that comes from Greek and Hebrew words that literally means a measuring rod. So canonicity describes the standard that books had to meet to be recognized as scripture.

On the one hand, deciding which books were inspired seems like a human process. Christians gathered together at church councils in the first several centuries A.D. for the purpose of officially recognizing which books are inspired. But it’s important to remember that these councils did not determine which books were inspired. They simply recognized what God had already determined.

This study discusses the tests of canonicity that were used, the history of canonization and a brief explanation of why certain disputed books are not scripture.

II. Summary: The collection of 66 books were properly recognized by the early church as the complete authoritative scriptures not to be added to or subtracted from.

III. Tests of Canonicity

The early church councils applied several basic standards in recognizing whether a book was inspired.

A. Is it authoritative (“Thus saith the Lord”)?

B. Is it prophetic (“a man of God” 2 Peter 1:20)?

- A book in the Bible must have the authority of a spiritual leader of Israel (O.T. – prophet, king, judge, scribe) or and apostle of the church (N.T. – It must be based on the testimony of an original apostle.).

C. Is it authentic (consistent with other revelation of truth)?

D. Is it dynamic – demonstrating God’s life-changing power (Hebrew 4:12)?

E. Is it received (accepted and used by believers – 1 Thessalonians 2:13)?

(Norman L. Geisler & William Nix, A General Introduction To The Bible. pp. 137-144).

Jude on the other hand had early patristic support.


redleghunter  posted on  2017-07-18   0:58:31 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#13. To: redleghunter (#12) (Edited)

Jude on the other hand had early patristic support.


Mmmm...it is a scholarly piece you link to but it doesn't address the inclusion of a quote from the Book of Enoch in verses 14-15 of Jude. Which is the bone I always have to pick with Jude. To torture yet another hoary metaphor, verse 14 sticks out like a sore thumb, at least to me. It is not consistent with the general character of the NT canon, like it doesn't belong there at all. And naturally, that raises questions about the entirety of Jude and not just that lone verse.

Tooconservative  posted on  2017-07-18   10:13:53 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

#14. To: Tooconservative (#13)

Yes Jude. Been some time since we discussed. Let me look back at some personal notes.

redleghunter  posted on  2017-07-19   0:42:19 ET  Reply   Trace   Private Reply  

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